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yet in the West, the aporias are not quite of the same nature as the sic-et-non confrontation of conflicting texts. He also argues that more than the universities it is therefore the colleges, as they evolved first in Paris and then in universities like Oxford and Cambridge, which are based on the Islamic model of the waqf (charitable endowment and show the real traces. Firstly, Islamic influence was crucial for the establishment in Western Europe of a new kind of institution, beginning in the twelfth/sixth century, namely the university. That Jesus was the Messiah. It greatly enhanced and facilitated the transmission process.

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Muslims were trading with China and Western Europe by the middle of ninth century. The Greek logic was equally used by the rationalists and traditionalists. They corroborated revelation with reason by allegorical interpretations within the established boundaries of Arabic language and Islamic theology. In direct relation, Protestantism also made great headways, and during the second half of the century Catholic Hungary became a Protestant land. This was in part a legacy of the translation movement, especially in Spain, which we have already looked at in connection with Peter the Venerable's efforts to gather more accurate information about Islam, but it was more particularly a result of the translations which were. His moral Christianity was far closer to the Muhammadan Christianity as advocated by Locke than the Trinitarian Christianity. The early reformers set the tone of liberty by challenging the Catholic Church and its claims to divine authority and the later reformers pushed it further by defying the Protestant ecclesiastical establishments and their irrational dogmas. In his letter of 1571 Sultan Murad III wrote, As you, for your part, do not worship idols, you have banished the idols and portraits and bells from churches, and declared your faith by stating that God Almighty is one and Holy Jesus is His. As seen earlier, his Westminster School friend Henry Stubbe (16321676) who also attended Christ Church, Oxford with him converted to Islam.