studies, some individuals may silence their opinions if the media does not validate their importance or viewpoint. "A compromised fourth estate?". If one node is activated, nearby nodes are also activated. "The obstinate audience: the influence process from the point of view of social communication". Media effects are transactional edit Many theories assume reciprocal causal relationships between different variables, including characteristics of media users, factors in environment, and outcomes of media (Bandura 2009).
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Media influence is the actual force exerted by a media message, resulting in either a change or reinforcement in audience or individual beliefs. The headlines must reflect and justify the matter printed under them news report should be devoid of comments and value judgments; and the language used in the writing the news should be temperate as such as may foster feelings of amity among communities and groups. Annual Review of Psychology. "The Electoral Knowledge Network". This propaganda exemplified strong-effect communication. Choice and Preference in Media Use. "Television Viewing and Unhealthy Diet: Implications for Children and Media Interventions". They not only inform, influence, reason and argue with us but, wittingly or unwittingly overawe. 54 Take the elaboration likelihood model as an example: the variable of "need for cognition indicating users' tendency to enjoy effortful information processing, is considered as a moderator of media effects on attitudes. A b c d e f g McQuail, Denis (2010). Media is also a major source of entertainment.